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Volume 27 No.3 (September-December 2013)

The Effect of Implementing an Action Plan Based on the AIC Technique for Computer Game Addiction and Health Behavior among Elementary School Students
Prakaipetch Supaket Sutham Nanthamongkolchai Wanalada Thongbai Sukanya Phoolphoklang

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this experimental research was to examine the effect of implementing an action plan using the Appreciation Influence Control (AIC) technique for computer game addiction and health behavior among elementary students regarding the process of problem solving on the part of the student participation in relation to the adjustment of their health behavior. The sample consisted of 60 students in elementary school grades 4-5 that had exhibited addition to computers and that were observed from September 3, to October 30, 2012, divided equally into two groups the experimental and the control group. The experimental group received the implementing action plan using the AIC technique; and the control group received only the questionnaire on general information, a computer game addiction questionnaire, and a health behavior questionnaire. Data were collected before and a week after the intervention. Descriptive statistics were carried out by using frequency, mean, standard deviation, and t- test. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in the computer game addiction between the experimental group and the control group (p-value <.001). The mean scores were 16.43 (SD=4.051) in the experimental group and 33.63 (SD=2.697) in the control group. Moreover, there was a significant difference in the health behavior scores between two groups (p-value < .05). The mean scores were 66.23 (SD=4.890) and 49.30 (SD=7.203). Furthermore, the results from implementing the action plan using the Appreciation Influence Control (AIC) technique revealed that students participated and felt proud of the music project. They believed music could incline interesting from computer games. These results suggest that teachers, student leaders, and those who involved in students have to apply music project which including the monitoring and modifying of student participation in such an efficient sustainable.

Keywords: Implementing an action plan based on AIC technique /Computer game addiction / Health behavior


Effectiveness of Protection Motivation Theory Application Program on Tb Prevention Behavior of Caregivers
Walaiporn Singjuy Wonpen Kaewpan Arpaporn Powwattana

ABSTRACT
The main objective of the research was to study the effectiveness of Protection Motivation application program on TB Prevention behavior of caregiver .This quasi-experimental research was one group pretest-posttest design. The sample were 55 caregivers of new TB patients with smear AFB positive in Suphanburi province. The activities composed of lecture with the use of flipcharts, dialogue, demonstrations, practice, positive-role models, and group discussion.The research procedure lasted 12 weeks. Data were collected at 4th week and 8th week by using questionnaires before and after the intervention. The data were analyzed using percentage, mean, standard deviation, and paired t-test. After the intervention at 4th and 8th week, it was found that people in the experiment group had significantly higher mean score of perceived severity, perceived probability, selfefficacy,outcome expectation, and intention to perform behavior (p- value < .05) than before getting involve to the program. After the intervention at 4th , the people in the experiment group had significantly different mean score of all variables from 8th week ( p- value < .05). Findings suggested that the intervention applying the Protection Motivation Theory was able to encourage the risk group to develop proper practices in prevention Tuberculosis .Thus, this heath education program can create motivation to prevent and promote activities that reduce the risk of TB. The results of this study should be used in the further studies.

Keywords: TB prevention behavior/ Health Protection Motivation theory/ Caregiver


Factors Associated with Stages of Change for Dietary Intake of Persons with Metabolic Syndrome, Uthaithani Province
Thaweesak Khamklueng Manirat Therawiwat Nirat Imamee

ABSTRACT
Metabolic syndrome is a complex of signs and symptoms that are the risk factors of the onset of coronary heart disease. The persons with metabolic syndrome will increase the risk of getting Type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease which are very harmful to health. This study was a survey research aiming to investigate the factors associated with stages of change for dietary intake of persons with metabolic syndrome in Uthaithani Province. The samples were composed of 500 respondents with metabolic syndrome, in accordance with the criteria set by the International Diabetes Federation, who were selected by using three-stage sampling method. The research instrument used was the interviewing schedule and the data were analyzed by using descriptive analysis, Chi-square test, and One-Way ANOVA. The results were found that 75 percent of the respondents were females and 25 percent were males. According to the stages of change, the following percentages of the respondents in each stage were found: precontemplation (36.4%); contemplation (18.6%); preparation or ready for action (27.6%); action (10.4%) and maintenance stage (7.0%) respectively. Significant difference of pros of decisional balance for dietary intake and perceived self-efficacy average score was found between stages of change (p-value < .001) but no significant difference was found between the cons of decisional balance of dietary intake average scores (p-value =0.073). This study revealed that the respondents with metabolic syndrome hold different stages of change for dietary intake. Therefore, public health organizations should assess the stages of change and organize learning activities for promoting correct and appropriate dietary intake in accordance with the different stages of change for dietary intake of persons with metabolic syndrome in order to change dietary intake behavior effectively.

Keywords:Stages of change / Dietary intake / Decisional balance


The Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Smoking Behavior in Persons at Risk for Coronary Artery Disease
Warisa Yamsri Wantana Maneesriwongul Orsa Panpakdee

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the effect of a motivational interview or routine advice on smoking cessation on knowledge of cigarette toxicity, stages of behavioral change, and number of cigarettes smoked per day comparing before, immediately-after the intervention, and follow - up stage (30 days after the intervention). Subjects were purposively recruited from persons at risk for coronary artery disease. The experimental group (n = 30) received a motivational interview, while the control group (n = 30) received routine advice on smoking cessation. Data were obtained using questionnaires assessing knowledge of cigarette toxicity and stages of behavioral change, as well as daily records of the number of cigarettes smoked. The findings revealed that the improvement of knowledge of cigarette toxicity immediately after the intervention and follow - up stage in the experimental group was significantly better than that in the control group (p < .01; p < .05, respectively). A greater proportion of subjects were in the action stage of smoking reduction, and a greater reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day at both times were detected in the experimental group, compared to the control group, (p < .001; p < .001, respectively). However, there was no significant improvement of knowledge of cigarette toxicity between follow - up stage and immediately after the intervention in either group; the experimental group had a greater reduction in number of cigarettes smoked per day compared to the control group (p < .05). The study showed significantly greater effectiveness of a motivational interview on smoking reduction than routine advice on smoking cessation. Therefore, motivational interview should be applied for smoking cessation in persons using health services at primary care centers.

Keywords: Motivational Interview/ Routine Advice on Smoking Cessation/ Knowledge of Cigarette Toxicity/ Stages of behavioral change/ Smoking behavior


Effects of a Fall Prevention Program for Thai Older Adults
Wilawan Somton Tassanee Rawiworrakul Kwanjai Amnatsatsue

ABSTRACT
The objective of this quasi-experimental study was to examine effects of a fall prevention program for Thai older adults applying Orem's Self-care Deficit Theory. Seventy older adults in Langsuan District, Chumphon Province, aged 65-79 years, with a risk of falling, were invited to participate in this study. There were 35 participants in the experimental group and 35 participants in the comparison group. The 8-week fall prevention program consisted of enhancing awareness, giving support, enhancing self-care capability, and creating environmental modification, all of which were designed to improve the effect of self-care capability on fall prevention. The comparison group received conventional care as part of the routine work of the Sub-district Health Promotion Hospital in their community. Data collected before and after the intervention included socio-demographic data and effect of self-care capability on fall prevention. Data analysis was performed using percentage, mean, standard deviation, paired t-test, and independent t-test. Results reveal that, at the post-test, the experimental group had significantly higher self-care capability effect on fall prevention scores than the pre-test scores (p-value < .001). In addition, the self-care capability effect on fall prevention scores of the experimental group were greater than those of the comparison group (p-value < .001). The fall prevention program for Thai older adults could enhance the effect of self-care capability on fall prevention for older adults. This program could be adopted by sub-district health promotion hospital personnel to promote the effect of selfcare capability on fall prevention for older adults at home and in the community.

Keywords: Fall Prevention Program / Older Adults


Effects of Capacity Building for Breast Self-Examination of Female Health Volunteers in Surin's Communities
Phatnapha Srikhrueadam Punyarat Lapvongwatana Natkamol Chansatitporn

ABSTRACT
Most of the female village health volunteers (VHVs) only know the basic skills about how to perform breast self-examination(BSE) but they are unable to detect abnormal lump in breasts. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to evaluate the effects of capacity building for BSE. The one-group pretest-posttest design had 45 subjects recruited by stratified sample and proportional allocation method from female VHVs in Surin province. The intervention procedures hold on 3 weekends with Participatory Learning (PL). Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires for knowledge and attitude at before the intervention, at immediately after the intervention, and at 2-month follow-up, and by checklists for technical skills at before the intervention and at follow-up period. Descriptive data were presented by percentage, mean scores and standard deviations. One-way repeated measure ANOVA was performed to assess the effects on time of knowledge and attitude and paired t-tests to determine technical skills. The level of significance was less than .05. Most of the subjects had developed their learning capacity to higher than before the intervention and more than half of them were at good level. The results revealed that the mean scores of knowledge and attitude were significantly different in times (p-value< .001). and showed its sustainability at the follow-up period. For technical skills, the result revealed that at 2-month followup period the mean score was significantly higher than at before the intervention (p-value <.001).
It's suggested that an application of PL had an overall effect and illustrated sustainability such as knowledge, attitude and skills in BSE. This study can further initiate capacity building of female VHVs for other public health services.

Keywords: Breast self-examination / Capacity building for BSE / Participatoryv learning / Female village health volunteers


Factors Related to Occupational Health Services of Primary Care Units in NakhonRatchasima Province
Napak Duangchumphol Yuwadee Wittayapun

ABSTRACT
The Nakhon Ratchasimaprovince has a higher rate of injury at work than the national average. This should have occupational health services (OHSs) suitable to the primary health care units assigned to it in order to alleviate this problem. The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to study factors related to the OHSs of primary care units in Nakhon Ratchasima province. Rogers' model of occupational health programs and services was applied in order to give a conceptual framework to this study, including the input factors (i.e., knowledge and skills of personnel; adequacy of staff; basic data and problem situations; materials, tools, manuals and funding; as well as policy and goals), the throughput factors (i.e., the management of OHSs; training, field visits, continuing education and research of personnel, as well as team work and networks), and the OHSs of primary care units. Mailed questionnaires were used to collect data and had a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.88 - 0.94. The samples of this study were 264 primary care units from the Nakhon Ratchasima province. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient and Spearman rank correlation coefficient were used to analyze data. The results showed that input and throughput factors held statistically significant positive relationships with OHSs (p-value < .01). The first three minor factors that had the highest positive relationships with OHSs were the management of OHSs; basic data and problem situations; as well as team work and networks (rs = 0.670, 0.630 and 0.625 respectively), whereas the adequacy of staff held lowest positive relationships (rs = 0.425). This study suggested that in order to deliver effective OHSs under the limitation of OHSs system in primary care units, they should develop management systems first, followed by putting the basic information and problem situations to action, as well as building the occupational health network teams. This would bring the highest benefit to all sectors of workers in Nakhon Ratchasima province.

Keywords: Occupational health services / Primary care units / Model of occupational health service